Guide Practical Guide to Alterations and Extensions (Builders Bookshelf Series)

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Where direct access is provided for pedestrians from a pedestrian tunnel or elevated walkway to a building or facility, at least one direct entrance to the building or facility from each tunnel or walkway shall comply with In transportation facilities, where different entrances serve different transportation fixed routes or groups of fixed routes, at least one public entrance serving each fixed route or group of fixed routes shall comply with Direct connections to other facilities shall provide an accessible route complying with from the point of connection to boarding platforms and all transportation system elements required to be accessible.

Any elements provided to facilitate future direct connections shall be on an accessible route connecting boarding platforms and all transportation system elements required to be accessible. Key stations and existing intercity rail stations required by Subpart C of 49 CFR part 37 to be altered, shall have at least one entrance complying with At least one accessible entrance to each tenancy in a facility shall comply with In residential dwelling units, at least one primary entrance shall comply with The primary entrance to a residential dwelling unit shall not be to a bedroom.

Where restricted entrances are provided to a building or facility, at least one restricted entrance to the building or facility shall comply with If a service entrance is the only entrance to a building or to a tenancy in a facility, that entrance shall comply with Where entrances used only by inmates or detainees and security personnel are provided at judicial facilities, detention facilities, or correctional facilities, at least one such entrance shall comply with Doors, doorways, and gates providing user passage shall be provided in accordance with Each entrance to a building or facility required to comply with Within a building or facility, at least one door, doorway, or gate serving each room or space complying with these requirements shall comply with In transient lodging facilities, entrances, doors, and doorways providing user passage into and within guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with In residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with Elevators provided for passengers shall comply with Where multiple elevators are provided, each elevator shall comply with In a building or facility permitted to use the exceptions to Elevators complying with or shall be permitted in multi-story residential dwelling units.

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Where elements of existing elevators are altered, the same element shall also be altered in all elevators that are programmed to respond to the same hall call control as the altered elevator and shall comply with the requirements of for the altered element. Platform lifts shall comply with Platform lifts shall be permitted as a component of an accessible route in new construction in accordance with Platform lifts shall be permitted as a component of an accessible route in an existing building or facility.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to performance areas and speakers' platforms. Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide an accessible route to comply with the wheelchair space dispersion and line-of-sight requirements of and Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide an accessible route to incidental spaces which are not public use spaces and which are occupied by five persons maximum. Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide an accessible route to: jury boxes and witness stands; raised courtroom stations including, judges' benches, clerks' stations, bailiffs' stations, deputy clerks' stations, and court reporters' stations; and to depressed areas such as the well of a court.

Platform lifts shall be permitted where existing exterior site constraints make use of a ramp or elevator infeasible. This exception applies where topography or other similar existing site constraints necessitate the use of a platform lift as the only feasible alternative.

28 CFR part 36, subpart D — New Construction and Alterations

While the site constraint must reflect exterior conditions, the lift can be installed in the interior of a building. For example, a new building constructed between and connected to two existing buildings may have insufficient space to coordinate floor levels and also to provide ramped entry from the public way. In this example, an exterior or interior platform lift could be used to provide an accessible entrance or to coordinate one or more interior floor levels. Platform lifts shall be permitted to connect levels within transient lodging guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to load and unload areas serving amusement rides.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to play components or soft contained play structures. Platform lifts shall be permitted to provide accessible routes to team or player seating areas serving areas of sport activity. While the use of platform lifts is allowed, ramps are recommended to provide access to player seating areas serving an area of sport activity.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to be used instead of gangways that are part of accessible routes serving recreational boating facilities and fishing piers and platforms. Security barriers, including but not limited to, security bollards and security check points, shall not obstruct a required accessible route or accessible means of egress. EXCEPTION: Where security barriers incorporate elements that cannot comply with these requirements such as certain metal detectors, fluoroscopes, or other similar devices, the accessible route shall be permitted to be located adjacent to security screening devices.

The accessible route shall permit persons with disabilities passing around security barriers to maintain visual contact with their personal items to the same extent provided others passing through the security barrier. Means of egress shall comply with section Where means of egress are permitted by local building or life safety codes to share a common path of egress travel, accessible means of egress shall be permitted to share a common path of egress travel.

Areas of refuge shall not be required in detention and correctional facilities. Standby power shall be provided for platform lifts permitted by section Where parking spaces are provided, parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with EXCEPTION: Parking spaces used exclusively for buses, trucks, other delivery vehicles, law enforcement vehicles, or vehicular impound shall not be required to comply with provided that lots accessed by the public are provided with a passenger loading zone complying with Parking spaces complying with shall be provided in accordance with Table Where more than one parking facility is provided on a site, the number of accessible spaces provided on the site shall be calculated according to the number of spaces required for each parking facility.

The term "parking facility" is used Section The number of parking spaces required to be accessible is to be calculated separately for each parking facility; the required number is not to be based on the total number of parking spaces provided in all of the parking facilities provided on the site.

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Ten percent of patient and visitor parking spaces provided to serve hospital outpatient facilities shall comply with The term "outpatient facility" is not defined in this document but is intended to cover facilities or units that are located in hospitals and that provide regular and continuing medical treatment without an overnight stay. Doctors' offices, independent clinics, or other facilities not located in hospitals are not considered hospital outpatient facilities for purposes of this document.

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Twenty percent of patient and visitor parking spaces provided to serve rehabilitation facilities specializing in treating conditions that affect mobility and outpatient physical therapy facilities shall comply with Conditions that affect mobility include conditions requiring the use or assistance of a brace, cane, crutch, prosthetic device, wheelchair, or powered mobility aid; arthritic, neurological, or orthopedic conditions that severely limit one's ability to walk; respiratory diseases and other conditions which may require the use of portable oxygen; and cardiac conditions that impose significant functional limitations.

Parking spaces provided to serve residential facilities shall comply with Where at least one parking space is provided for each residential dwelling unit, at least one parking space complying with shall be provided for each residential dwelling unit required to provide mobility features complying with Where the total number of parking spaces provided for each residential dwelling unit exceeds one parking space per residential dwelling unit, 2 percent, but no fewer than one space, of all the parking spaces not covered by Where parking spaces are provided for persons other than residents, parking shall be provided in accordance with Table For every six or fraction of six parking spaces required by Parking spaces complying with that serve a particular building or facility shall be located on the shortest accessible route from parking to an entrance complying with Where parking serves more than one accessible entrance, parking spaces complying with shall be dispersed and located on the shortest accessible route to the accessible entrances.

In parking facilities that do not serve a particular building or facility, parking spaces complying with shall be located on the shortest accessible route to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility. All van parking spaces shall be permitted to be grouped on one level within a multi-story parking facility. Parking spaces shall be permitted to be located in different parking facilities if substantially equivalent or greater accessibility is provided in terms of distance from an accessible entrance or entrances, parking fee, and user convenience.

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Factors that could affect "user convenience" include, but are not limited to, protection from the weather, security, lighting, and comparative maintenance of the alternative parking site. In residential facilities containing residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with Spaces provided in accordance with Passenger loading zones shall be provided in accordance with Passenger loading zones, except those required to comply with In bus loading zones restricted to use by designated or specified public transportation vehicles, each bus bay, bus stop, or other area designated for lift or ramp deployment shall comply with The terms "designated public transportation" and "specified public transportation" are defined by the Department of Transportation at 49 CFR These terms refer to public transportation services provided by public or private entities, respectively.

For example, designated public transportation vehicles include buses and vans operated by public transit agencies, while specified public transportation vehicles include tour and charter buses, taxis and limousines, and hotel shuttles operated by private entities. On-street bus stops shall comply with At least one passenger loading zone complying with shall be provided at an accessible entrance to licensed medical care and licensed long-term care facilities where the period of stay exceeds twenty-four hours.

Parking facilities that provide valet parking services shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with Mechanical access parking garages shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with at vehicle drop-off and vehicle pick-up areas. Interior and exterior stairs that are part of a means of egress shall comply with In detention and correctional facilities, stairs that are not located in public use areas shall not be required to comply with In alterations, stairs between levels that are connected by an accessible route shall not be required to comply with , except that handrails complying with shall be provided when the stairs are altered.

Stairs that connect play components shall not be required to comply with Although these requirements do not mandate handrails on stairs that are not part of a means of egress, State or local building codes may require handrails or guards. Where drinking fountains are provided on an exterior site, on a floor, or within a secured area they shall be provided in accordance with EXCEPTION: In detention or correctional facilities, drinking fountains only serving holding or housing cells not required to comply with shall not be required to comply with No fewer than two drinking fountains shall be provided.

One drinking fountain shall comply with Where more than the minimum number of drinking fountains specified in EXCEPTION: Where 50 percent of the drinking fountains yields a fraction, 50 percent shall be permitted to be rounded up or down provided that the total number of drinking fountains complying with equals percent of drinking fountains.

Where provided, kitchens, kitchenettes, and sinks shall comply with Kitchens and kitchenettes shall comply with Where sinks are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type provided in each accessible room or space shall comply with Where toilet facilities and bathing facilities are provided, they shall comply with Where toilet facilities and bathing facilities are provided in facilities permitted by Where toilet rooms are provided, each toilet room shall comply with Where bathing rooms are provided, each bathing room shall comply with In alterations where it is technically infeasible to comply with , altering existing toilet or bathing rooms shall not be required where a single unisex toilet room or bathing room complying with Where multiple single user portable toilet or bathing units are clustered at a single location, no more than 5 percent of the toilet units and bathing units at each cluster shall be required to comply with Portable toilet units and bathing units complying with shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with Where multiple single user toilet rooms are clustered at a single location, no more than 50 percent of the single user toilet rooms for each use at each cluster shall be required to comply with These requirements allow the use of unisex or single-user toilet rooms in alterations when technical infeasibility can be demonstrated.

Unisex toilet rooms benefit people who use opposite sex personal care assistants. For this reason, it is advantageous to install unisex toilet rooms in addition to accessible single-sex toilet rooms in new facilities. A "cluster" is a group of toilet rooms proximate to one another. Generally, toilet rooms in a cluster are within sight of, or adjacent to, one another. Unisex toilet rooms shall contain not more than one lavatory, and two water closets without urinals or one water closet and one urinal.

Unisex bathing rooms shall contain one shower or one shower and one bathtub, one lavatory, and one water closet. Doors to unisex toilet rooms and unisex bathing rooms shall have privacy latches. Plumbing fixtures and accessories provided in a toilet room or bathing room required to comply with Where toilet compartments are provided, at least one toilet compartment shall comply with In addition to the compartment required to comply with A toilet compartment is a partitioned space that is located within a toilet room, and that normally contains no more than one water closet.

A toilet compartment may also contain a lavatory. A lavatory is a sink provided for hand washing.


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Full-height partitions and door assemblies can comprise toilet compartments where the minimum required spaces are provided within the compartment. Where water closets are provided, at least one shall comply with Where more than one urinal is provided, at least one shall comply with Where lavatories are provided, at least one shall comply with and shall not be located in a toilet compartment. Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall comply with Where bathtubs or showers are provided, at least one bathtub complying with or at least one shower complying with shall be provided.

Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in toilet rooms without toilet compartments, at least one of each type shall comply with Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in toilet compartments, at least one of each type complying with Where coat hooks or shelves are provided in bathing facilities, at least one of each type complying with Where provided, washing machines and clothes dryers shall comply with Where three or fewer washing machines are provided, at least one shall comply with Where more than three washing machines are provided, at least two shall comply with Where three or fewer clothes dryers are provided, at least one shall comply with Where more than three clothes dryers are provided, at least two shall comply with Where fire alarm systems provide audible alarm coverage, alarms shall comply with EXCEPTION: In existing facilities, visible alarms shall not be required except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

Unlike audible alarms, visible alarms must be located within the space they serve so that the signal is visible. Facility alarm systems other than fire alarm systems such as those used for tornado warnings and other emergencies are not required to comply with the technical criteria for alarms in Section Every effort should be made to ensure that such alarms can be differentiated in their signal from fire alarms systems and that people who need to be notified of emergencies are adequately safeguarded.

Description

Consult local fire departments and prepare evacuation plans taking into consideration the needs of every building occupant, including people with disabilities. Alarms in public use areas and common use areas shall comply with Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the wiring system shall be designed so that visible alarms complying with can be integrated into the alarm system. Guest rooms required to comply with Where provided in residential dwelling units required to comply with Signs shall be provided in accordance with and shall comply with Building directories, menus, seat and row designations in assembly areas, occupant names, building addresses, and company names and logos shall not be required to comply with In parking facilities, signs shall not be required to comply with In detention and correctional facilities, signs not located in public use areas shall not be required to comply with Interior and exterior signs identifying permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with Where pictograms are provided as designations of permanent interior rooms and spaces, the pictograms shall comply with Section Examples include interior signs labeling restrooms, room and floor numbers or letters, and room names.

United States Access Board

Tactile text descriptors are required for pictograms that are provided to label or identify a permanent room or space. Pictograms that provide information about a room or space, such as "no smoking," occupant logos, and the International Symbol of Accessibility, are not required to have text descriptors.

Signs that provide direction to or information about interior spaces and facilities of the site shall comply with Information about interior spaces and facilities includes rules of conduct, occupant load, and similar signs. Signs providing direction to rooms or spaces include those that identify egress routes.

Doors at exit passageways, exit discharge, and exit stairways shall be identified by tactile signs complying with An exit passageway is a horizontal exit component that is separated from the interior spaces of the building by fire-resistance-rated construction and that leads to the exit discharge or public way. The exit discharge is that portion of an egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

Signs required by section Parking spaces complying with shall be identified by signs complying with Where a total of four or fewer parking spaces, including accessible parking spaces, are provided on a site, identification of accessible parking spaces shall not be required. In residential facilities, where parking spaces are assigned to specific residential dwelling units, identification of accessible parking spaces shall not be required.

Where not all entrances comply with , entrances complying with shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with Directional signs complying with Where a directional sign is required, it should be located to minimize backtracking. In some cases, this could mean locating a sign at the beginning of a route, not just at the inaccessible entrances to a building.